Structural and cellular mechanisms of peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1-mediated enhancement of Tissue Factor gene expression, protein half-life, and pro-coagulant activity
Kurakula K, Koenis DS, Herzik MA Jr, Liu Y, Craft JW Jr, van Loenen PB, Vos M, Tran MK, Versteeg HH, Goumans MTH, Ruf W, de Vries CJM, Şen M.
Tissue Factor is a cell-surface glycoprotein expressed in various cells of the vasculature and is the principal regulator of the blood coagulation cascade and hemostasis. Notably, aberrant expression of Tissue Factor is associated with cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Here, we sought to identify factors that regulate Tissue Factor gene expression and activity. Tissue Factor gene expression is regulated by various transcription factors, including activating protein-1 and nuclear factor-κ B. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 is known to modulate the activity of these two transcription factors, and we now show that Pin1 augments Tissue Factor gene expression in both vascular smooth muscle cells and activated endothelial cells via activating protein-1 and nuclear factor-κ B signaling. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic domain of Tissue Factor contains a well-conserved phospho-Ser258-Pro259 amino-acid motif recognized by Pin1. Using co-immunoprecipitation and solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we show that the WW-domain of Pin1 directly binds the cytoplasmic domain of Tissue Factor. This interaction occurs via the phospho-Ser258-Pro259 sequence in the Tissue Factor cytoplasmic domain and results in increased protein half-life and pro-coagulant activity. Taken together, our results establish Pin1 as an upstream regulator of Tissue Factor-mediated coagulation, thereby opening up new avenues for research into the use of specific Pin1 inhibitors for the treatment of diseases characterized by pathological coagulation, such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis.